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Description Quiz

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Archaeological Areas of Pompeii,

Herculaneum and Torre



Inscribed :1997 Criteria: C (iii)(iv)(v)

Brief Description
When Vesuvius erupted on 24 August A.D. 79, it engulfed the two flourishing Roman towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, as well as the many wealthy villas in the area. These have been progressively excavated and made accessible to the public since the mid-18th century. The vast expanse of the commercial town of Pompeii contrasts with the smaller but better-preserved remains of the holiday resort of Herculaneum, while the superb wall paintings of the Villa Oplontis at Torre Annunziata give a vivid impression of the opulent lifestyle enjoyed by the wealthier citizens of the Early Roman Empire.

Reading Passage

Pompeii is first mentioned in history in 310 BC, when, during the Second Samnite War, a Roman fleet landed at the Sarnus port of Pompeii and from there made an unsuccessful attack on the neighbouring city of Nuceria. At the end of the Samnite wars, Campania became a part of the Roman confederation, and the cities became "allies" of Rome. But they were not completely subjugated and Romanized until the time of the Social War. @Pompeii joined the Italians in their revolt against Rome in this war and was besieged by the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 89 BC. After the war,Pompeii, along with the rest of Italy south of the Po River, received Roman citizenship. As a punishment for Pompeii's part in the war, a colony of Roman veterans was established there under Publius Sulla, the nephew of the Roman general. ALatin now replaced Oscan as the official language, and the city soon became Romanized in institutions, architecture, and culture. (see also Index: Roman Republic and Empire)

A riot in the amphitheatre at Pompeii between the Pompeians and the Nucerians, in AD 59, is reported by the Roman historian Tacitus.An earthquake in AD 62 did great damage in both Pompeii and Herculaneum. BThe cities had not yet recovered from this catastrophe when final destruction overcame them 17 years later. (see also Index: Roman Republic and Empire) Mount Vesuvius erupted on Aug. 24, AD 79. A vivid eyewitness report is preserved in two letters written by Pliny the Younger to the historian Tacitus, who had inquired about the death of Pliny the Elder, commander of the Roman fleet at Misenum. Pliny the Elder had rushed from Misenum to help the stricken population and to get a close view of the volcanic phenomena, and he died at Stabiae. Falling fragments of lava, pumice, and other volcanic debris covered Pompeii to a depth of more than 9 feet (3 m), causing the roofs of the houses to fall in. A rain of ashes followed, reaching a depth of another 9 feet and preserving in a pall of ash the bodies of the inhabitants who perished sheltering in their houses or trying to escape toward the coast or by the roads leading to Stabiae or Nuceria; many were suffocated by the ash. CThus Pompeii remained buried under a layer of pumice stones and ash 19 to 23 feet (6 to 7 m) deep. The city's sudden burial would serve to protect it for the next 17 centuries from vandalism, looting, and the destructive effects of climate and weather.

DThe ruins at Pompeii were first discovered late in the 16th century by the architect Domenico Fontana. Excavation of the buried cities began first at Herculaneum, in 1709, during Austrian occupation. Work did not begin at Pompeii until 1748, and in 1763 an inscription ("rei publicae Pompeianorum") was found that identified the site as Pompeii pompeii

http://www.e-nakamas.com/fukui/pompei.htm(世界遺産無限都市 から写真引用)

http://website.lineone.net/~pnrichardson/clgepage/clgenotes/britannicapompeii.html(classics at SMCから本文引用)


ention:言及する confederation:同盟すること revolt:背く subjugate: citizenship:市民権 replace:入れ替わるinstitution:団体 catastrophe:大惨事 inquired about:〜を問う volcanic:火山suffocate:呼吸困難にする buried:埋没した layer:地層 pumice stones:軽石 ash:火山灰 destructive:有害な ruins:遺跡 excavation:出土品


travel tips


Spring and Fall: 55 - 75°F; Summer: 70 - 85°F; Winter: 40 - 55°F.
Bring comfortable shoes, a sweater, clothes you can layer and an all-weather coat. On the cruises, informal dress is the general rule but there may be some occasions were formal dress is required. Some religious sites may require modest dress to enter (no shorts or sleeveless tops).


The voltage used is 220 volts (the U.S. uses 120 volts). You can purchase a converter at most hardware stores.


Shops are open from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. and from 3:30/4 p.m. to 7:30/8 p.m., with some variations in Northern Italy, where the lunch break is shorter and shops close earlier. Prices are reasonable and the quality of good very high. Department stores such as La Rinascente, Coin, Upim, and Standa are found in many Italian cities and towns.
Things to buy: Clothes for men & women (dresses, shoes, gloves, silk ties, shirts); lacework, jewelry, leather goods (handbags, cases, boxes, luggage), ceramics, gold and silver items, alabaster; woodwork, straw, embroidery, glass and crystal ware. It is advisable to carry merchandise purchased with you in order to avoid any inconvenience. All major credit cards are honored in
Italy. A proof of purchase (receipt) must be kept.

http://www.gate1travel.com/Destinations/General_Info/travel_tips/Italy.htmGATE1 TRAVEL から引用)


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a time difference:8hours

a population:30thousands


currency: Euromoney

Pompeii 感想、紹介

www.shejapan.com > World Heritages > Pompeii

by Takahisa Ishino, Aoyamagakuin College of Economics

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