以前からイタリアに興味があり、旅行するなどして、その文化に触れたいと思っていた。 偶然、テレビで放送しているのを見て、この世界遺産にしたのはいいが、比較的新しく、そのため、あまり有名ではないので、 文献が少なく苦労した。また、ホームページを作るのは初めてだが新鮮だった。
<青山学院大学 経済学部 経済学科 船木亮>
Pre-reading Questions:1. What are the Sacri Monti?
2. Where are the Sacri Monti?
Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy, Italy
Inscribed :2003 Criteria: C (ii)(iv)
The nine Sacri Monti (Sacred Mountains) of northern Italy are groups of chapels and other architectural features created in the late 16th and 17th centuries and dedicated to different aspects of the Christian faith. In addition to their symbolic spiritual meaning, they are of great beauty by virtue of the skill with which they have been integrated into the surrounding natural landscape of hills, forests and lakes. They also house much important artistic material in the form of wall paintings and statuary.
The Sacri Monti were of particular religious interest (A) pilgrimage routes between the 15th and 16th centuries. They featured a large number of (B) that were very (C) situated along the way. Behind these chapels lies a well-defined spiritual programme that was strengthened in that historical/geographical region at that time by the Order of Friars Minor Observants and then by San Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan. The new project was the result of (D) from the Council of Trent concerning some areas of the region that were most under threat from the heresy of the Lutheran Reform. Several sites that were already places of worship were transformed into complexes housing paintings and sculptures depicting religious historical events taken from the Old and New Testaments or stories of Saints’ lives. The Nuova Gerusalemme of Varallo, Sesia was the first of these and dates back to 1486. It was built by the Franciscan Bernardino Caimi as a (E) version of the Holy Places in Palestine that at that time could not be reached by Christian pilgrims.
Following the Council of Trent in 1535, variations on the Sacro Monte di Varallo theme were used in other places under the jurisdiction of the Curia of Milan. The concept went ahead later in Italy and Europe in an effort to combat the (F) of the Protestant reform. These pilgrim stations were built according to specific (G) dictated by Borromeo and celebrated not only the (H) of Christ but also the culture regarding the Virgin Mary and the Saints. The stations were strategically located at the mouths of Alpine valleys and were fortifications of the Catholic faith. Following Varallo came the Sacri Monti of Crea, Orta, Varese, Oropa, Ossuccio, Ghiffa, Domodossola and Belmonte. One of the great achievements of the first Sacri Monti was the way in which they managed to seamlessly integrate the natural, historic, architectural, artistic and cultural elements together, but at the same time retain their very (I) individual characteristics. Between them runs a coherent intangible system of values and they provide exceptional witness to the spiritual values of the Counter-reformation. The Sacri Monti are shining examples of buildings that combine the natural environment and the (J) of man to achieve religious aims and form a new cultural landscape.
Tips etc. 「サクリ・モンティ」とは「サクロ・モンテ」の複数形で、「聖なる山」を意味し、 北イタリア（ピエモンテ州とロンバルディア州）に点在する9つの宗教建築群をさします。 礼拝堂や聖堂からなるサクロ・モンテは、宗教的価値に加え、芸術上の建築的価値も極めて高く、 また周辺の美しい自然景観も見逃せません。町の中心部からやや離れた丘や山の上にあるサクロ・モンテは、 静かで落ち着いた雰囲気の中にあり、その厳粛な静寂さに思わず背筋をピンと伸ばしてしまうことでしょう。
the Council of Trent
イタリア北部、 トレントで開かれたカトリック教会の会議。 プロテスタントに対抗して伝統的なカトリックの教義を再確認し、 反宗教改革の理念を体系化するに至る
UNESCO World Heritage site
by Ryo Funaki, Aoyama Gakuin College of Economics
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