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作者コメント 
スコータイ王朝(13世紀 - 1438年)とはタイに存在したタイ族最初の王朝と言われています。
スコータイとは「幸福の誕生」という意味です。
私は今までに三度タイに行ったことがあり、タイの文化や遺跡にとても関心があります。
今回、この授業を通してタイの歴史をより深く学びたいと思い、スコータイを調べることにしました。

青山学院大学 経済学部経済学科 3年H組 久永祐太朗


Pre-reading Questions:
1. What country is Sukhothai in?
2. What does 'Si' mean?


Brief description:
Sukhothai was the capital of the first Kingdom of Siam in the 13th and 14th centuries. It has a number of fine monuments, illustrating the beginnings of Thai architecture. The great civilization which evolved in the Kingdom of Sukhothai absorbed numerous influences and ancient local traditions; the rapid assimilation of all these elements forged what is known as the 'Sukhothai style'.


Reading Passage
Beginning in the 12th century a people from Yunnan in China settled In the northern regions of the Khmer state. Known as the Thai (free Men), they organized themselves in small communities. A Thai prince married a Khmer woman, then revolted against the central power and created the first Siamese state, calling it the kingdom of Sukhothai after the name of its capital city. Ramkhamhaeng (or Rama the Strong), second son of the founder of the state (c.l280-1318) was one of the most important Thai sovereigns, for he brought his state extensive territory through his military victories. He invented the Siamese alphabet (Khmer script). He imposed strict observance of the Buddhist religion and instituted a 52 military and social organization copied from his vanquished Neighbors, the Khmers.

 

   

The great civilization which evolved in the kingdom of Sukhothai was a tributary of vanquished influences and ancient local traditions, but the rapid assimilation of all@ these elements forged, in record time, what is known as the “Sukhothai style.” The three old towns nominated for inclusion on the World Heritage List by the Thai government were the principal centers of the kingodm of Ramkhamhaeng: Sukhothai (the capital), Si Satchanlai (second royal residence), and Kampheng Pet.
In their architecture (they are built of brick with decorations in stucco and wood), they offer a great variety and skillful mixture of elements inspired by the Singhalese or Khmers.
The great meeting rooms with the massive chevet decorated with a monumental portrait of Buddha are specific to Sukhothai architecture and subsequently influenced all Thai art.
Among the statuary the first Thai style is distinguished byA the particular physical features of the Buddhas: a long, fine nose, a flame like protuberance on the head (Singhalese influences) and a double line around the mouth (Khmer tradition). Buddha is often represented upright (walking), his clothing clinging to his body, with an almost haughty attitude.

The historic town of Sukhothai lies a dozen or so kilometers from the modern town and still has a large part of its fortifications. The principal monuments include the monastery (wat) Mahathat with its royal temple and its cemetery; Sra Si Wat with its two stupas, their graceful lines reflected in the water of the town’s biggest reservoir; and an impressive prang (reliquary tower typical of Ayutthaya art) from a somewhat later period.
The site has been excavated and studied since the middle of the last century. A project for an international campaign was adoptedB by Unesco (1977) and a 70 km2 area was declared a historic park (1988).
UnfortunatelyC, a modern road was built that cuts the site in two. The historic town of Si Satchanm is separated from the modern town by the river Yom.

〜スコータイの文化〜
スコータイ王朝ではスコータイ、シーサッチャナーライ、カムペーンペットなどに代表されるようなタイ独特の建築を確立させた。
これはアンコール・ワットに代表されるようなクメール遺跡を元にスリランカの様式を加えたものである。
仏像美術ではスコータイ仏と呼ばれる仏像が創られた。
これは緩やかな女性的な曲線を特徴する型にはまった個性を許さない様式であったが、スコータイ王朝亡き後もアユタヤ王朝でも盛んに制作され、現在でも大乗仏教寺院以外では必ずと言っていいほど配置されている長く愛されている仏像である。

〜スコータイの社会〜
スコータイの歴代の王はポークンと呼ばれれていた。ポークンとは人民を保護し、悪を適切に廃する父親の様な人である。

〜感想〜
今回、スコータイの歴史や背景を調べることにより、タイ独特の建築様式の由来を知ることができた。
スコータイ王朝とは、タイ民族の初めての国家であり、タイ語のアルファベットであるタイ文字が完成したなど、現在のタイ民族の基盤を作った時代であると言える。
そのような時代の中で当時の人々は何を考え、どのように行動してきたか、 ということを考えながら、スコータイの遺跡を見物すると、また違った見方ができると思う。 是非皆様も一度タイを訪れ、タイの文化や空気を肌で感じてみてはいかがでしょうか。

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Yunnan
雲南(中国西南部の省)

khmer state
クメール王朝

Siamese state
シャム王朝

Ramkhamhaeng
ラムカムへ−ン大王

Si Satchanlai
シーサッチャナーライ タイ独特の建築

Kampheng Pet
カムぺーンペット タイ独特の建築

Singhalese
シンハラ人

Mahathat
ワット・マハータート
Web Sites

UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
Sukhothai Dawn of Happiness
Wikipedia

www.shejapan.com > World Heritages > Sukhothai
by Yutaro Hisanaga, Aoyama Gakuin College of Economics


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