作者コメント. ヴェニスは水の町と呼ばれているとても美しい町で、たくさんの世界遺産があります。私は世界遺産に興味があり、その中でもイタリアに強く心惹かれました。イタリアの中でもヴェニスを選んだ理由は、水の都といわれている町はどのような構造になっているのか、現在問題になっているアクア・アルタと呼ばれる高潮問題はなんなのか、聖堂や建物以外にヴェニスという町全体に興味を持ったからです。この授業では、今まで作ったことのないウェブを作成し、ヴェニスについてたくさんの資料を読みました。そして、一つの世界遺産について自分なりにまとめる楽しさを得ました。ヴェニスだけではなく、他の世界遺産についてもたくさんの資料を参考にしながらウェブを作成してみたいと思いました。 2006年 小坂幸
Pre-reading Questions:1. What country is Italy in?
2. What dose the Acqua alta mean?
Venice and Lagoon
Inscribed : 1987Criteria: C (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi)
Founded in the 5th century and spread over 118 small islands, Venice became a major maritime power in the 10th century. The whole city is an extraordinary architectural masterpiece in which even the smallest building contains works by some of the world's greatest artists such as Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese and others.
Venice and Lagoon (Venice and Lagoon Foundation)
Reading PassageTransport Venice is famous for its canals. It is built on an archipelago of more than 100 islands (118 in total) formed by about 150 canals in a shallow lagoon. The islands on which the city is built are connected by about 400 bridges. In the old center, the canals serve the function of roads, and every form of transport is on water or on foot. In the 19th century a causeway to the mainland brought a railway station to Venice, and an automobile causeway and parking lot was added in the 20th century. Beyond these land entrances at the northern edge of the city, transportation within the city remains, as it was in centuries past, entirely on water or on foot. Venice is Europe's largest carfree area, unique in Europe in remaining a sizable functioning city in the 21st century entirely without motorcars or trucks.
The classical Venetian boat is the gondola, although it is now mostly used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or other ceremonies, due to its cost. Most Venetians now travel by motorised waterbuses ("vaporetti") which ply regular routes along the major canals and between the city's islands. The city also has many private boats. The only unmotorized gondolas still in common use by Venetians are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at certain points without bridges. Venice is served by the newly rebuilt Marco Polo International Airport, or Aeroporto di Venezia Marco Polo, named in honor of its famous citizen. The airport is on the mainland and was rebuilt away from the coast so that visitors now need to get a bus to the pier, from which a water taxi or Aliliguna waterbus can be used.
Sinking of Venice The buildings of Venice are constructed on closely spaced wood piles (under water, in the absence of oxygen, wood does not decay) which penetrate alternating layers of clay and sand. Most of these piles are still intact after centuries of submersion. The foundations rest on the piles, and buildings of brick or stone sit above these footings. The buildings are often threatened by flood tides pushing in from the Adriatic between autumn and early spring.
During the 20th century, when many artesian wells were sunk into the periphery of the lagoon to draw water for local industry, Venice began to subside. It was realised that extraction of the aquifer was the cause. This sinking process has slowed markedly since artesian wells were banned in the 1960s. However, the city is still threatened by more frequent low-level floods (so-called Acqua alta, "high water") that creep to a height of several centimeters over its quays, regularly following certain tides. In many old houses the former staircases used by people to unload goods are now flooded, rendering the former ground floor uninhabitable. Thus, many Venetians resorted to moving up to the upper floors and continue with their lives.
Some recent studies have suggested that the city is no longer sinking, but this is not yet certain; therefore, a state of alert has not been revoked. In May 2003, Silvio Berlusconi, the Italian Prime Minister, inaugurated the MOSE project, which will lay a series of 79 inflatable pontoons across the sea bed at the three entrances to the lagoon. When tides are predicted to rise above 110 centimetres, the pontoons will be filled with air and block the incoming water from the Adriatic sea. This challenging engineering work is due to be completed by 2011. To make things worse, however, sea levels are rising anyway, and in fact, the whole east coast of Italy is sinking (although very slowly). Some experts say that the best way to protect Venice is to physically lift the City to a greater height above sea level - by pumping water into the soil underneath the city. This way, some hope, it could rise above sea levels, protecting it for hundreds of years, and eventually the MOSE project may not be necessary (it will, controvertially, alter the tidal patterns in the lagoon, damaging some wildlife).
(1) A further point about the "lifting" system would be that it would be permenant - the MOSE Project is, by it very nature, a temporary system: it is expected to protect Venice for "only" 100 years. If sinking is prevented, today's engineers hope that future generations will - perhaps in thousands of years time - remember the current work being done, for saving one of the most romantic cities in the world.
Tips etc. ゴンドラで有名なヴェニスは、現在ではほとんど観光用のみで、ヴェネツィア人は水上バスや水上タクシーを使っているのが意外でした。また、水の都の構造が、たくさんの木の上に建てられていて、その頑丈さは驚異的です。現在問題となっているアクア・アルタにより、あのサンマルコ大聖堂が浸水してしまったり、多くのヴェネツィア人は長靴を使用したり、今後のヴェニスに興味が湧きました。ゴンドラで有名なヴェニスは、現在ではほとんど観光用のみで、ヴェネツィア人は水上バスや水上タクシーを使っているのが意外でした。また、水の都の構造が、たくさんの木の上に建てられていて、その頑丈さは驚異的です。現在問題となっているアクア・アルタにより、あのサンマルコ大聖堂が浸水してしまったり、多くのヴェネツィア人は長靴を使用したり、今後のヴェニスに興味が湧きました。
Welcome to Venice
by Miyuki Kosaka, Aoyama Gakuin College of Economics
© 2006 SHEJapan.com